All the living organisms’ intake food and have a system to utilize the required amount and flush out the rest. This activity is carried out by a group of organs that together form the excretory system. This system functions to flush out various toxins that could harm the body. The excretory system of humans is very efficient, it absorbs and re absorbs essential nutrients and then the left over is flushed out. The following organs constitute the excretory system:
- Large intestine.
- Urinary bladder.
Biologically excretory system is defined as the system that helps main then internal homeostasis. It basically maintains a balance between the body fluids and unnecessary elements that are produced after metabolism. Body metabolism generates a lot of unwanted by products that are not required by the body and hence are eliminated by the excretory system.
Out of all the excretory organs the most important is the kidney. Kidney is bean shaped organ present in in the abdominal cavity on both the sides of pelvic girdle. These organs are responsible to exchange of essential nutrients and maintain a balance between the calcium, sodium and potassium ions. These ions are integral part of various other biochemical pathways. The human body contains 70% water and the balance of this water level is essential for proper functioning of cells. Kidneys do a great job 24/7 to keep the water balance intact. Water absorption and reabsorption happens in the kidney and the residues are excreted in the form of urine through the urethra. The urine may contain harmful toxins from the body, an examination of the same will reveal if the body is suffering from any sort of infection.
The urine after the filtration from the kidneys is stored in the urinary bladder from where it is excreted out of the body. Skin is another vent out for the body internal toxins. Skin, in the form of sweat excretes out excess salt from the body and helps maintain the salt balance in the body.
Liver has the highest number of functions that any other organ in the body carries out. All harmful chemicals and toxins intake is routed to the liver and the liver cells detoxify the same and releases out of the body. However, excess toxic intake can damage the liver and can lead to liver cirrhosis.
Faulty excretory system can lead to kidney failure and other complications, urethral infections are also evident sometimes.